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Technological factors can stall or spur adoption of EV 2-wheelers



India’s electric vehicle (EV) ecosystem has seen a significant growth in the past few years, buoyed by both the government and private sector. The interim budget, too, announced a slew of measures aiming at faster expansion of the domestic EV ecosystem, including support for charging infrastructure. As the EV landscape evolves, we can see how policies, market and technological factors influence consumer acceptance of these vehicles. Technology is a critical deciding factor for EVs adoption, especially the two-wheelers, which are among the largest selling automobile segments in India.

“Battery technology is pivotal. Advancements in lithium-ion batteries and the emergence of solid-state batteries enhance efficiency, safety and charging speed, crucial for extending vehicle range and user convenience. Motor technology also plays a crucial role. Innovations such as brushless DC motors offer better efficiency and require less maintenance, improving overall vehicle performance,” says Sushant Kumar, Founder & Managing Director, AMO Mobility.

Material science advancements are enabling the use of lightweight materials for better range and performance without compromising safety. “Collectively, these technological advancements are shaping the future of electric two-wheelers, making them more appealing and efficient for consumers,” notes Kumar.

Similarly, Anshul Gupta, Managing Director, Okaya EV, says the market needs to find the right technology as EVs are currently in a pilot phase. Different entities conduct their research, but eventually, EVs will stabilise when industry players adopt common standards.

“Progress in charging infrastructure, such as rapid charging methods and battery swapping techniques, mitigates concerns about range anxiety and promotes widespread adoption. These technological factors synergise to drive the development of EV two-wheelers, enhancing their practicality, efficiency and appeal to a broader range of consumers,” says Gupta.In the evolving landscape of EV)technology, especially concerning two-wheelers, several technological factors are set to shape their future development, experts believe.Prashant Vashishtha Chairman & Managing Director, Sokudo India, says, “Battery technology is crucial, with shifts from lithium-ion to more advanced formulations like solid-state or lithium-sulfur batteries promising higher energy densities and faster charging times. Motor technology will also advance, with improvements aimed at increasing efficiency and reducing weight. Electronic control systems are expected to become more sophisticated, enhancing vehicle dynamics such as acceleration, braking, and stability. Software integration is another key area, with developments in user interfaces, navigation systems, and remote diagnostics aimed at improving user engagement and safety. These technologies not only enhance performance but also bridge the gap between the user and the vehicle, emphasizing lifecycle management and safety features that are critical for consumer acceptance and market growth.”

How tech is shaping up the EV 2W segment
At the heart of the technological factors propelling the development and adoption of EV 2Ws in India is battery technology. Experts agree groundbreaking advancements in lithium-ion batteries, coupled with the exciting emergence of solid-state batteries, are dramatically boosting efficiency, safety, and charging speed. “These innovations are not just incremental improvements — they are transformative, extending vehicle range and making electric two-wheelers a practical choice for daily use. Equally critical is motor technology. The shift towards brushless DC motors is nothing short of revolutionary. Offering superior efficiency and significantly reduced maintenance needs, these motors are enhancing the overall performance of electric two-wheelers, making them more reliable and enjoyable to ride. This leap in technology is not just changing the landscape of urban mobility; it’s redefining it, making electric two-wheelers an increasingly compelling alternative to traditional fuel-powered vehicles,” says Kumar.

The integration of IoT and AI technologies has also become vital for facilitating real-time vehicle diagnostics, enhancing user experience and increasing vehicle reliability. These technologies help predict battery life, optimise energy management and improve vehicle efficiency, say industry stakeholders.

Gupta says that safety is a primary concern for customers due to high voltages and temperatures. LFP batteries, with a higher thermal runaway temperature at 270°C, are considered safer than NMC batteries, which reach 210°C. Moreover, LFP batteries offer a longer lifespan of 1800-2000 charge cycles compared to NMC’s 800-1000 cycles.

“Although LFP requires more space, effective design can mitigate this concern. Infrastructure improvements like fast-charging stations and connectivity features such as GPS navigation contribute to the popularity of electric two-wheelers, boosted by supportive government policies and incentives,” adds Gupta.



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